How do ethical guidelines impact psychological research?
Ethical Guidelines in Psychology
Identify how ethical issues inform & constrain research practices.

Describe how ethical & legal guidelines protect research participants & promote sound ethical practice.
  • Those provided by the American Psychological Association (APA)
  • Federal regulations
  • Local Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  • Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)
Duez Lecture: Research Methods - Ethics

Duez Notes: Research Methods
How does the methodology of the research affect the outcome of a study?
Research Methods in Psychology
Differentiate types of research with regard to purpose, strengths, & weaknesses.
  • Experiments
  • Correlational Studies
  • Survey Research
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Case Studies
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Cross-sectional Studies
Selecting a Research Method
Predict the validity of behavioral explanations based on the quality of research design.
Confounding variables limit confidence in research conclusions.

The Experimental Method
Identify independentdependentconfounding, & control variables in experimental designs.

Describe how research design drives the reasonable conclusions that can be drawn.
  • Experiments are useful for determining cause & effect.
  • The use of experimental controls reduces alternative explanations.
  • Random assignment is needed to demonstrate cause & effect.
  • Correlational research can indicate if there is a relationship or association between two variables but cannot demonstrate cause & effect.
Distinguish between random assignment of participants to conditions in experiments & random selection of participants, primarily in correlational studies & surveys.
Duez Lecture: Research Methods

Duez Notes: Research Statistics
Students struggle with using statistics, particularly statistical significance—they might describe correlational research rather than statistical significance or use the term “confidence interval” without connecting it back to the data. Without further explanation, exam graders cannot confirm a student’s understanding of statistical significance.
Statistical Analysis in Psychology
Apply basic descriptive statistical concepts, including interpreting & constructing graphs & calculating simple descriptive statistics.
  • Measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode)
  • Variation (range, standard deviation)
  • Correlation coefficient
  • Frequency distribution (normal, bimodal, positive skew, negative skew)
Distinguish the purposes of descriptive statistics & inferential statistics.
Duez Lecture: Research Statistics

Duez Notes: Correlations
Correlational research can indicate if there is a relationship or association between two variables but cannot demonstrate cause & effect.

Duez Lecture: Correlations

Often, "Statistical Significance" is a part of the FRQ on the AP Test. Be ready to explain it. 
Statistical Significance: likely not due to chance. 


Crash Course Psychology: Research & Experimentation
So how do we apply the scientific method to psychological research? Lots of ways, but today Hank talks about case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys and interviews, and experimentation. Also he covers different kinds of bias in experimentation and how research practices help us avoid them.




SCI SHOW PSYCH: 5 Top Psychological Experiments That Could Not Be Done Today
In the past, some experiments were run in scary and unethical ways. From using children to unknowing subjects, these five experiments left people affected for the rest of their lives.